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ICCAS 2024 – International Conference on Computer Applications in Shipbuilding

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About ICCAS:

The first ICCAS Conference was organised in 1973 in Tokyo, Japan. Since then, the conference has taken place in locations all around the world, including Gothenburg in 1976, Shanghai in 1988, Rio de Janeiro in 1991, with the latest instalment taking place back to where it all started – Yokohama, Japan in 2022. ICCAS is a conference well-established within the maritime industry and is known to be the place for the most forward-going presentations and discussions. ICCAS 2024 will be held in Genoa, Italy on 10-12 September 2024. As part of the conference, the delegates will have an opportunity to visit the Fincantieri Shipyard.

As environmental demands and increasing regulatory compliance requirements place additional pressures on ship owners and operators, advancements in digital technologies are being exploited by ship designers, builders, and operators to develop and evolve effective and sustainable green ship solutions.

Increasing amounts of data are collected, managed, and used across all stages of a ship lifecycle, to continuously improve quality, performance, efficiency, and compliance environment requirements.

ICCAS Papers address the practical application of Digital Technologies and discuss their  application and success in use.

ICCAS 2024 in Genoa will offer Authors an opportunity to submit & present a paper on success and achievements when implementing Digital technologies in the shipbuilding and marine environment. Delegates may discuss common problems with peers from the global shipbuilding and marine industry and how they are being addressed.

Registration Fees

Before 1 June 2024 From 1 June 2024
RINA Member €600 + VAT €700 + VAT
RINA Non-Member €700 + VAT €800 + VAT
Concession (retired/students*) €400 + VAT €400 + VAT
Authors €420 + VAT €420 + VAT
Additional Authors €600 + VAT €600 + VAT

* Please note that RINA Student Members can attend the conference free of charge but the ticket availability is limited. If you would like to become a RINA Student Member and register for the event, please contact RINA Events Team at

The registration is now open! Click “Book Now” to get your ticket.

International Programme Committee

  • John Duncan,(Chairman),UK
  • Jamie Duncan (Secretary), UK
  • Gordan Sikic, LINA et al, Croatia
  • Joachim Brodda, Balance Technology Consulting, Germany
  • Christian Cabos, Wärtsilä, Germany
  • Thomas Gosch, SDC Ship Design & Consulting, Germany
  • Aldo Zini, Cetena, Italy
  • Hayato Suga, ClassNK, Japan
  • Kazuo Hiekata, University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Sergio Ribeiro e Silva, University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Yoo-Sang Choo, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Jin-Hyung Park, Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd, South Korea
  • Myung-il Roh, Seoul National University, South Korea
  • John Martin, SAMOSC, UK
  • Paul Crossland, QinetiQ, UK

Fincantieri Shipyard – 13 September 2024

More details coming soon! Save the date in your diary to visit one of the Fincantieri Shipyards as part of the ICCAS 2024 Conference. Travel arrangements will be included as part of your conference ticket. The availability for the Shipyard Visit will be limited and the spaces will be given out on a first come, first served basis.

Hotel Rates

For the available hotel rates for the conference, please contact RINA Events Team at


Massimo Debenedetti

Massimo Debenedetti, Vice President Research & Innovation, Naval Vessels Division, Fincantieri S.p.A.

Massimo served at Fiat Group, where he held several leadership roles in Research, Innovation and Product Development and Strategy, until 2012.

He joined Fincantieri in June 2012, where he is currently VP of Research & Innovation at the Naval Business Unit. His main accountabilities are to define the R&D strategy of the Business Unit, plan and budget and to drive the Innovation Process.

He is Executive Chairman of the board of Cetena, the corporate research centre of Fincantieri and serves as Director in the board of several companies.

He held positions as adjunct professor of Innovation Management at Luiss Business School in Rome and in Materials Science and Engineering at Turin University and Polytechnic and gives lectures on innovation strategy and management on a regular basis.

Massimo holds an MSc in Physics from Genoa University, a Quality Management Master from Pisa University and attended several courses at MIT on Innovation Management and Product Strategy.


All aspects of applying Digital Technology across the industry are addressed, such as:

  • Improved design to satisfy the environmental and performance requirements of the ship-owner
  • Transitioning current computing systems with future developments, to maximize the use of captured data
  • Collaborative working and data sharing across all platforms and regulatory bodies
  • Enhanced methodologies for accuracy, quality, and productivity.
  • Advancements and Innovative applications of visual technologies.
  • Use of digital data to optimize ship operational performance and cost effectiveness.


View All Abstracts

Simulation Project Serving Canada NSS Program.

Ahmed Ghowel, GENOA Design International

Within Genoa, there is a seamless transfer of knowledge and experience through continual collaboration within the Project Teams but also to the ship design market and both younger and older generations, much like that seamless transfer of a baton in a relay race. Genoa’s role in the shipbuilding industry emphasizes its importance as a relay point for knowledge and experience transfer through a collaborative approach not only within its walls, but to the industry and its upcoming generations. This process is demonstrated through the implementation of a Run Test Project (RTP), a unique small-scale simulation project with clearly defined objectives.

A Genoa core value of “Put People First” aligns with prioritizing and engaging team members at the start of any project. This collaborative approach provides firsthand exposure to cohesive processes in conjunction with new technologies.

Additional objectives will encompass the analysis of time-based data that is linked to specified scope and tasks. Gaining a comprehensive understanding of all areas of project execution through a simulated approach identifies and mitigates the impact of unforeseen changes and risks.

The National Shipbuilding Strategy-NSS is undertaking the construction of a new Polar Icebreaker that will serve Canada’s Arctic ambitions. The application of this simulation process is particularly significant, as it will be directly correlated to that of the actual NSS Polar project. As a simulation project, it will focus on scoping a specific block with 3130 designated as its numerical title.

It aims to enhance the educational curriculum by incorporating the RTP methodology into current and future training programs for future generations offered through Genoa Academy.

Additionally, a detailed case study of block 3130 will be presented, revealing the practical implementation of these methodologies in real-time projects also serves as a roadmap, providing insight and guidance for others to explore and initiate.

From Virtual Prototyping to Digital Twin

Aldo Zini, Fincantieri S.p.A.

The Virtual Prototyping of the ship has been used for many years since the beginning of the century. Main idea was to implement a Virtual representation of the ship and her systems able to behave in a reliable way through simulation. A 3D virtual reality environment was the background for this virtual prototype which behave in a realistic way in order to verify and assess functionalities of the designed ship. This was primarily focused on the design phase, but the idea of reusing this virtual prototype in different ship lifecycle phases was already in place: reuse in training, operations, maintenance, dismantling… Many development and research activities has been performed building and reusing a lot of technology: multibody simulations, virtual reality, HLA…

But a crucial ingredient was missing: the interaction with the real ship. Meanwhile onboard automation systems, sensors and actuators and networks becomes essential part of the ship. Nowadays, IoT, global communications, cloud technologies, A.I. pave the way for connecting the Virtual world with the Real one.

The naval industry has witnessed a significant transformation transitioning from traditional virtual prototyping applications to the more sophisticated paradigm of digital twins.

This paper presents a comprehensive review of this evolutionary journey through examples of implementation of virtual prototypes and their reuse in a Digital Twin environment under implementation and evolution, tracing the key technological advancements, challenges, and opportunities that have propelled this transition.

A Knowledge-Based Decision Support System for Ship Mission Feasibility Analysis and onboard Awareness

Andrea Marchesi, Italian Navy

The article presents a Knowledge-Based Decision Support System (DSS) aimed at enhancing the ship performance assessment, with specific reference to ship platform (i.e. the carrier of the payload). The DSS can be an effective support for designers, shipowners and crews activity. Leveraging AI inference techniques and the knowledge of functional relations within the platform system, the DSS evaluates the feasibility of desired missions and provides appropriate action scheduling for platform operation.

In addition, the tool is able to provide analysis of ship energy system, allowing insights into fuel autonomy and power limitations.

DSS proves to be valuable in both the ship design and operational phases. During the design, it helps assessing if a ship meets specific criteria, such as recovering from a blackout under certain damage conditions. Designers and shipowners can utilize it to verify compliance with a regulations and evaluate a ship's resilience against various damage scenario. In operational phases, the tool supports commanders and crews by enabling mission planning and suggesting a sequence of actions. This is particularly beneficial for novice operators during normal operation and helpful for panicked situations in damaged conditions.

The system operates by anticipating the prerequisites necessary for activating a component. For instance, before starting an engine, the electrical connection and auxiliary plants, like fuel oil, raw water, and compressed air must be active. As described in the paper, utilizing a systematic definition of systems relations, the DSS effectively employs AI techniques to deal with the inherent complexity of the problem.

Integrated Ship Design Using Teamcenter, NX and Simcenter for Advanced Structural Analysis

Victor de Diego Martín, Navantia S.A S.M.E.

This paper presents an integrated approach to ship design implemented at the Navantia shipyard using a collaborative platform. The methodology establishes an interconnected workflow in which structural calculations are dynamically integrated with the CAD model, from the initial conceptual stages through to the construction phases of shipbuilding.

Teamcenter acts as the central platform, facilitating collaboration and version control throughout the design lifecycle. NX is used in the early stages to create a 3D model of the ship, which forms the basis for subsequent analysis. The model is continuously refined and updated as the design evolves. This process allows to incorporate design criteria simulations—yielding, buckling, fatigue, vibrations.

Finally, Navantia advocates the adoption of an integrated methodology, emphasising the interconnected workflows to improve efficiency and accuracy throughout the shipbuilding process.

Progress In Quiescent Period Prediction; Helicopter - Ship Motion Interface Prediction using Simulation Technology

Bernard Ferrier, Syntek Technologies, Inc

A major international maritime interest is in how to increase the sea state under which a wide range of launch and recovery operations can be safely undertaken.  The key wave-height-critical sub-tasks that limit the sea state under which they can be carried out is short, typically less than one minute.  The key to quiescent period prediction (QPP) is to predict, at the operation site, the shape of the sea’s surface for a short time into the future.  QPP requires a deterministic measure of the sea surface profile remote from the prediction site together with a suitable wave propagation model and a vessel motion model.  The time needed to set-up an air vehicle from the perch to its recovery may be longer than the deck motion quiescent windows may persist.  Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP) Program Aims to deliver technologies which support launch and recovery from Naval assets, particularly in higher sea states.  The Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP) system achieves this by using a wave sensor system to measure the sea surface several hundred meters in advance of the ship. From the measured sea surface, a short-term deterministic wave model can be constructed allowing the wave system to be propagated to the ship's location. The ship's response to the wave spectrum is calculated to determine the level of quiescence at the time of encounter.  The results are mapped dynamically on speed-polar visual graphics providing the ship’s best course to steer to ensure encountering the quiescent zone in a timely manner.

The Impact of Integrated Naval Technologies on Embarked Mission Package Operations as defined by an advanced simulated methodology

Bernard Ferrier, Fincantieri Marinette Marine

Fincantieri uses AI in its shipbuilding programs to improve Warship assembly efficiency and increase manufacturing speed to ultimately reduce construction costs. Similar procedures are applied using analytical tools to enable effective conduct of mission operations.  Prior to applying these techniques, simulated methods are used to forecast the behaviour of the AI algorithms.  AI assembly programs may be exploited to monitor and promote safe but rapid launch and recovery activities on the ship’s decks.  Simulation is used to assess the AI procedure and to analyzes mission parameters.  The simulation results are then re-applied to optimise the ship and vehicle recovery interaction.  The objective is to evaluate parameters like ship motion conditions, then predict ship’s motion with sufficient forecasted time (over a minute) to launch, recover and complete other motion sensitive tasks regardless of the seaway.  The application of analytical methodologies in real-time developing the appropriate time to recovery the air vehicle to the deck.  The real-time use of technology improves flight deck operations by significantly optimizing deck device rotation, security whilst reducing unnecessary human deck handling.  The same process leads to predictive vehicle maintenance and system operational quality control.  Launch and recovery of a VTOL UAS operational example is discussed.  Based on lessons learned from the use of Fincantieri AI methodologies, it is conceivable that, once integrated, shipboard communities could operate in much higher sea conditions recovering the air/sea vehicles with elevated confidence and reliability.

An Overview of PLM Capabilities and Data Models

Carsten Zerbst, PROSTEP

Managing a vessel’s information in a PLM system became a common idea and is nowadays implemented on several yards. However, there are no best practices available, on what domains and processes should be covered in shipbuilding PLM solution. Some yards give a special focus on the management of requirements, others on the initial or basic design phase, and some focus on the production domain. In this paper, we illustrate the ideas behind real-world PLM implementations, the offered capabilities as well as potential shortcomings. This investigation is based on our experience with PLM introduction projects on several yards worldwide. The second part of the paper gives an outlook about yet untackled challenges like sisterships management, or ROI-related data and potential solutions. The aim is to foster a better understanding of what PLM in the shipbuilding industry could offer and what impact decisions in the setup of the PLM system have on day-to-day business.

"Leveraging the IoT-Edge-Cloud Continuum to Enable the Smart Shipyard and the Smart Ship of the Future Fincantieri ""Cloud to the Future"" Project is part of the IPCEI Cloud  Infrastructure and Services (IPCEI CIS). The European Commission authorised -Decision SA.102519- Italy Member State to finance Fincantieri Project. The funding assignment decree iter is on-going."

Caterina Cobino, Fincantieri S.p.A.

Fincantieri ""Cloud to the Future"" Project is creating an efficient suite of Processing Services to properly organize and orchestrate information flows in an IoT-Edge-Cloud Continuum to enable both the Smart Shipyard and the Smart Ship of the future.

This paper delineates the four Work Packages (WPs) of the project and elucidates how they represent a fundamental step to achieve the following objectives: (i) enabling true Industry 4.0 solutions for the ship construction phase, and preparing the future Industry 5.0 solutions for the Smart Shipyard; (ii) creating the best conditions for the optimization of ship operations, its energy efficiency indexes, its environmental footprint, its safety, and its maintenance by focusing on digital transformation and properly integrating digital twins in the IoT-Edge-Cloud Continuum; (iii) enabling the lifecycle management of complex systems and infrastructures with an ever increasing level of automation and autonomy by integrating and orchestrating advanced Cloud and Edge based features; (iv) implementing suitable threat intelligence strategies for cybersecurity, focusing on the maritime applications and on the IMO priorities and recommendations.

Such objectives are strategically crafted to tackle various technological hurdles, including communication, data fusion, and vertical integration challenges. By leveraging emerging technological trends such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), the IoT-Edge-Cloud Continuum, Edge Intelligence, next-generation communication technologies like 5G and beyond, and the development of autonomous and intelligent systems, Fincantieri creates the infrastructure to overcome these obstacles.

Development of a time series imaging approach for defect identification

Christian Velasco-Gallego

Numerous defects, such as hull damage, engine failures, and equipment malfunctions, can occur in maritime operations, which may affect the safety and reliability of ships. Accordingly, the detection and classification of defects in ships is of paramount importance to guarantee its adequate functioning. This paper introduces a new time series imaging approach for defect identification by combining distinct time series imaging approaches with ensemble modelling. Specifically, Gramian Angular Field (GAF), Recurrence Plot (RP), and Markov Transition Field (MTF) are analysed in tandem with Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost). A case study on metal arc welding is also presented to highlight the performance of the proposed methodology and assess the feasibility of implementing this type of methods for defect identification.

Enabling an Effective Globally Distributed Ship Design and Engineering Capability

Christopher Phillips, Seaspan Shipyards

This research paper delves into the importance of fostering a globally distributed ship design and engineering capability, exploring the tools, techniques, and processes essential for seamless collaboration among ship designers situated across diverse geographical locations. The maritime industry, marked by its dynamic nature and intricate design challenges, is increasingly demanding a collaborative approach to leverage the collective expertise of global talents. ""Enabling a Globally Distributed Ship Design and Engineering Capability"" unveils the intricacies of this collaborative paradigm, shedding light on the specific mechanisms that facilitate efficient cooperation among ship designers worldwide.

Drawing on the rich experiences of Canada’s Seaspan Shipyards, this paper describes the company's journey in designing ships in collaboration with partner firms spanning the globe - navigating through the intricacies of virtual design environments, technology performance limitations, and collaborative platforms that underpin successful global ship design projects. It examines the nuanced integration of cutting-edge technologies, project management methodologies, and standardized documentation and processes to streamline communication and enhance productivity in a geographically dispersed design ecosystem.

As the maritime industry continues to evolve and embrace new technologies, the findings presented in this research paper serve as a guide for shipbuilding organizations aspiring to establish and optimize their globally distributed design capabilities. By dissecting real-world experiences and lessons learned, this paper aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse on fostering innovation and efficiency in the collaborative landscape of ship design and engineering.

Explainable Optimisation in the Maritime Sector

David Walker, University of Exeter

The need for optimisation arises frequently in the maritime sector, from the design of efficient hull forms to designing cargo loading plans and minimizing the carbon footprint of shipping. These problems can be optimised with black box artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as genetic algorithms, which can generate solutions to problems comprising multiple conflicting measures of solution quality. As the application of AI has become increasingly widespread, so has the need to decision support tools that facilitate understanding of the solutions they produce and the mechanisms they employ to solve a problem. Explainable AI is a technique for exposing the inner workings of black box AI tools, using (for example) visualization to convey the complex processes used by such tools, and individual steps in their computation. We present an application of multi-objective genetic algorithms to the problem of designing a stowage plan for a containership, and demonstrate visualization methods for explaining the mechanisms used to generate solutions, as well as for presenting the final solution sets to a decision maker so that a final stowage plan can be selected. We conclude with a discussion around the wider potential for the demonstrated techniques within the maritime sector.

Investigation of a ship slideway launching procedure through a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model

Davide Grassi, CETENA S.p.A.

Over the past decades, there has been a growing utilization of CFD as a modeling tool across various engineering applications in the Marine Industry. The launching of ships stands out as one of the critical procedures within the entire vessel construction process. In particular, the longitudinal oiled slideway launching is a well-established and cost-effective method that continues to be employed, especially by large shipyards. However, this technique shows significant drawbacks, including the relevant reaction force applied to the ship's bow during the rotation phase, an extended stopping distance and the substantial loads applied to the skids. Consequently, the traditional static calculation approach needs to be integrated with a more sophisticated CFD-based methodology incorporating additional physical considerations, such as the influence of the free surface and surrounding structures, inertial effects, and a precise estimation of hull and appendages resistance. The present study introduces a recently developed CFD methodology to assess the engineering parameters crucial for guaranteeing a secure and efficient launching procedure. A RANSE commercial solver calculates the motion of the vessel subject to fluid forces, gravity, and contact forces between the skids and slipways. The numerical model is then applied to the launch of a ship section having 95 m in length and a displacement of 5600 t. The outcome of the simulations is then compared with data from an experimental campaign carried out during the ship section’s launch to validate the numerical model in terms of vessel kinematics and hydrodynamic pressure acting of the fore part of the skid.

Ship Collision Avoidance Based on Reinforcement Learning Considering Data Uncertainty

Do-Hyun Chun, Seoul National University

As shipping routes become increasingly complex, there is a growing need for an autonomous navigation system for an autonomous ship that accurately predicts the potential danger of the own ship (OS) and performs safe navigation without collision with maritime obstacles such as target ships (TSs).

For collision risk assessment to quantify the potential danger between the OS and the TSs, many studies have used the ship domain method and the closest point of approach (CPA) based method. In this study, a method for collision risk assessment was proposed, combining the ship domain method and the CPA-based method. Also, the proposed method reflects the uncertainty of input data of the TSs based on multivariate normal distribution.

Furthermore, a deep reinforcement learning-based method for collision avoidance that complies with COLREGs (Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea) and can flexibly handle sudden changes in encounter situations was proposed. The proposed method recognizes multiple TSs around the OS simultaneously and performs collision avoidance.

To verify the proposed methods, they were applied to various encounter situations. As a result, it was confirmed that the methods can be used for safe navigation considering potential threats even when the accurate collision risk cannot be calculated due to errors in the information on TSs. Also, the results showed that even when multiple TSs were operating around the OS, the OS avoided all TSs and arrived at the destination safely.

Situational Awareness System for maritime scenarios: description of a practical solution and the lessons learnt from its installations

Emanuele Sansebastiano, Fincantieri NexTech

Nowadays the market requires vehicles which are more and more able to take decisions to reduce faults, reducing costs and improve human comfort. One of the main bricks which makes up every decisional system is data.

This paper reports Fincantieri NexTech solution to tackle the problem on gathering surrounding information to guarantee a sufficient situational awareness for self-sailing vessels. The first step of designing a situational awareness system (SAS) is selecting the sensors which collect raw environment data. Choosing a sufficiently wide suit of sensors (cameras, Lidar, radar, etc..) is very important, but the designing team must be aware that placing too many sensors can be counterproductive for both sensor maintenance and required computational power. Moreover, installing more sensors means higher initial investment.

The information extrapolated from each sensor needs to be filtered and fused to the one coming from the other sensors to improve the quality of the data without overwhelming the system.

The synergy of algorithms based on AI, such as Convolutional Neural Network, and analytical algorithms allows the system to be sufficiently fast and efficient in term of computational cost. Having fresh and cleaned information is mandatory to have an autonomous system fully working.

The solution developed and installed by Fincantieri Nextech offers, also, a friendly and customizable interface to present all data collected to just one operator. One of the objectives of this solution is having one operator, at maximum, in charge of supervising all vessel sensors dedicated to extrapolating information from the surrounding environment.

MBSE for Operational Analysis enhanced by Monte Carlo simulation using SysML language

Enrico Mancin, Fincantieri S.p.A.
Giulia, Pulvirenti, Fincantieri S.p.A.
Mattia, Bottero, CETENA S.p.A.

Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) uses models to represent and analyze complex systems and their interactions. It can be considered a methodology, because MBSE propose a set of principles, practices and procedures that guide the execution of a specific activity or task, as well as an approach, because MBSE is a way of dealing with a problem providing a systematic and rigorous way of developing. MBSE can be applied to various domains, including operational analysis in maritime warfare, where the system-of-systems behavior and performance are influenced by multiple factors and uncertainties. In this paper, we propose an MBSE approach for operational analysis, aimed to identify the optimal trade-off options among different system configurations and operational scenarios. We use SysML to model the system architecture, requirements, and variability, and link them to an internally developed Monte Carlo simulation tool (ASNET) that can run design of experiments (DOE) to evaluate the system behavior under different conditions. We demonstrate the approach through a case study of a submarine that leaves its Operational Headquarter after reception of mission plan and moves toward Operational Area with the strategic objective of prohibiting access to hostile naval forces across a specific strait. We show how the MBSE approach can help to explore the design space of innovative technological bricks, analyze the system trade-offs, and support decision making for operational effectiveness and efficiency. The paper also discusses the challenges and benefits of interoperability between SysML tools and ASNET Monte Carlo simulation tool and provides some recommendations and future directions.

"European Digital Naval Foundation – The Future Digital Ship for Naval Industry”

Authors: Frida W. Lindberg (Saab Kockums AB, Sweden); Christophe Baixas (Naval Group, France); Facio Valero Aitor (Navantia, Spain); Ivan Pena Regueiro (Navantia, Spain); Paola Gualeni (University of Genoa, Italy); Aldo Zini (Fincantieri, Italy); Juan Ignacio Silvera Vez (Navantia, Spain)."

Christophe Baixas, EDF2021 EDINAF (European Digital Naval Foundation) Consortium

Many current ship systems are based on app-centric infrastructures where data is copied into separate databases for further computing. This may be both time-consuming and energy-inefficient, and in some cases, vulnerable. The European Digital Naval Foundation (EDINAF) congregates the main EU shipbuilders and system providers with cutting edge research centres and SMEs to jointly launch a Digital Ship comprising of a data-centric infrastructure with a dynamic, secure hosting environment, harmonized across the EU.

The activity is meant to design a reference architecture for the Digital Ship and develop a digital platform, considering common base services to be offered to ever-evolving user-applications. By separating data from the applications into a collaborative, common database, simultaneous access by multiple apps is enabled, reducing serial, time- and energy-consuming computation processes, maximizing the use of captured data. In turn, the common database can be shared across multiple platforms and nations, providing even smarter decisions and situational overviews.

To prove the added value, several operational use-cases are identified to be run on a demonstrator, including decision-making support for the crew, using digital twins and sensor inputs from multiple systems, and show overall how data from multiple systems can be effectively compiled, to optimize ship operational performance and cost effectiveness, resulting in high value military tasks. The paper presents the key aspects and challenges of current vs. future ship System of Systems, as well as the consolidated achievements and agreements made in EDINAF, serving as the basis for the next generation of defence ships in Europe.

CFD simulations of heat transfer and ventilation for on board integration of cryogenic tanks on cruise ships

Giorgia Camauli, CETENA SpA

Last generation cruise ships feature innovative propulsion and power generation configurations leading to new challenges for the on board integration. For example, natural gas and hydrogen fuels are stored as liquids at very low temperatures inside cryogenic tanks which are installed in dedicated technical spaces.

In this context, an important concern during the integration studies is the heat transfer between the cold tanks and the ship structures. Even if the tanks are strongly thermally insulated, heat can propagate through the structural elements sustaining them, i.e. saddles and other supports whose temperatures need to be monitored. Furthermore, although properly ventilated, restricted areas of the technical space may reach the dew point temperature, with the risk of humidity condensation and potentially icing – event that must be avoided by regulation.

The purpose of this work was to develop a numerical methodology to verify these scenarios in the ship design phase. In particular, CFD simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer models were applied to a reference configuration to determine temperature distributions in the room and, in particular, minimum temperature on the steel structures, which is a driver for the choice of structural materials. Moreover, a species transport approach was adopted to deal with the humidity condensation issue, introducing water vapour through the ventilation supplies and comparing surface temperatures with the corresponding dew point value. The work includes also the development of a procedure to extract convective heat transfer coefficients to couple CFD and FEM-thermal analyses, which was validated through cross comparison of the results.

Digital Twin applications in NATO Exercise for Maritime Unmanned System

Giovanni Luca Maglione, NATO STO CMRE

This publication aims to push forward the concepts of Digital Twins (DT) for supporting operations as a tool for situational awareness and support to planning of a fleet of Maritime Unmanned Systems (MUS).

Underwater is a complex domain, by definition “non-human-friendly”. Despite extreme conditions of remote sensing, limited communications, oceans have always been strategic domains: on the surface, underwater and at the sea floor.

This paper highlights the M&S DT that is implemented by NATO CMRE to address the NATO interest for investigating applications on using DT technology to support MUS. Within the framework of an Allied Command for Transformation project, NATO STO CMRE and Italian Navy CSSN collaborated to shed a light on scenarios and software architectures for future DT applications, based on the state of art extended reality capability at CMRE.

As part of this endeavor CMRE developed a prototype that was deployed during REPMUS NATO exercise in 2022 and 2023, held in Portugal in September, and served as DT for the exercise for the nations involved.

The study reports on the scenarios supported by the tool and the architectures implemented and deployed during the exercises. A discussion on the results and the follow-ups that are being implemented in 2024 is also reported.

An overview of the effectiveness of digital data for monitoring the life-cycle of marine engines.

Giuseppe Giannino, Isotta Fraschini Motori (Fincantieri company)

The integration of digital data for monitoring engine health and condition on ships marks a paradigm shift in maritime operations. This paper explores the transformative impact of leveraging advanced technologies to gather, analyze, and interpret data related to engine performance in real-time.

Digital data monitoring systems utilize an array of sensors and connected devices to continuously collect crucial information regarding the health and condition of ship engines. These sensors measure parameters such as temperature, pressure, vibration, speed, and lubricant quality, providing a comprehensive understanding of the engine's operational status. The real-time nature of this data enables proactive measures, allowing for predictive maintenance strategies to be implemented.

By identifying potential issues before they escalate, ship operators can optimize engine performance, minimize downtime, and extend the lifespan of critical components.

Moreover, digital data monitoring contributes to enhanced safety at sea. Early detection of anomalies or potential failures in the engine allows for timely intervention, reducing the risk of catastrophic incidents. This technology-driven approach also facilitates efficient scheduling of maintenance activities, ensuring that ships are in optimal condition during their operational life cycle.

The adoption of digital data for monitoring engine health not only improves reliability but also streamlines operational efficiency, contributing to fuel savings and overall cost-effectiveness. This paper underscores the pivotal role of digitalization in revolutionizing engine health monitoring on vessels, ushering in a new era of proactive maintenance and heightened operational performance.

About connecting the game-engine to the existing applications in shipyards

Gordan Sikic, LINA et al

Last couple of years there is an increasing interest about usage of so called “game engine” class of programs in areas other than games. These programs promise easy data generation, creation of “smart entities”, automatic generation of simulation-type games, coupled with spectacular graphics and support for nearly all known devices. In brief, this class of programs seemed very usable in a ship design and building process.

In this situation, the logical step would be to include somehow the game-engine into the existing set of applications already used during the ship design. It would allow ship inquiry and 3D presentation on many levels, from geometry visualization, data extraction up to the complete real time interactive visual simulation of a hole ship. The nicest part would be the fact that all the benefits are coming with a minimum price, because almost all necessary work must be done, nonetheless.

However, game-engine programs are not designed to handle constantly changing data. Also, game-engines represent a “closed eco system” where everything needs to be organized according to the special rules set by game-engine program itself, and this might not be compatible with present software organization.

In this paper, author’s experience with implementation of batch loading data and connection to the business data base will be presented. The design of the additional software modules will be shown as well as the problems that needed to be solved. At the end, the results will be discussed.

Facilitating Shipyard Specialization Through PLM Technology

Craig Tulk, SSI

European shipyards continue to decrease in size and become more specialized. Focusing on technologically complex vessels, like cruise ships, ferries, and naval vessels, while incorporating innovation into processes has allowed niche shipbuilders to remain competitive despite tough global competition. A key characteristic that has emerged is increased cooperation across shipyards – through sub-contracting and industry partnerships. The future success of this strategy depends on maintaining close working links to other shipyards and sharing information within a network without adding business and IT risk. This paper demonstrates the state of cross-organizational collaboration today, how shipbuilding-specific PLM technology further enables the specialized approach through the interoperability of digital twins, and how adopting technology mitigates the risks of specialization and cooperation.

Automatic Routing for Pipes and Ducts Considering Supports on Surfaces of Curved Structures

Hajime Kimura, Kyushu University

During the ship design, designers have to deal with all pipe-routes in order to generate high-performance piping layouts. However, the routing task requires huge work hours because there are many regulations and functional design rules in the field. Especially in piping design, consideration must be given to the position and direction in which pipes are passed, in order to properly support pipes from pipe racks or structural members with support.

In this paper, a new piping path planning system is proposed in order to automate piping design corresponding to pipe supports and curved structures. In the proposed system, candidates for positions and directions to which pipes (or ducts) should          be passed are given in advance as 'candidate points' from the circumstances of pipe racks and support. Then, the system selects the appropriate candidate points automatically to generate piping paths keeping constraint of many factors, e.g., gravitational flow, or geometrical limitation of the pipe-bending machine, etc. Therefore, it is quite practical. The proposed system is implemented to a computer program, and the performance of the system is demonstrated through several simulations.

Optimizing Electric Catamaran Ferry Design for Inland River Navigation: An Efficient Parametric Approach Using CAESES

Harikrishnan U R, Cochin Shipyard Limited
Ananta Surya Teja Gudla, Cochin Shipyard Limited
Muhammed Sahid, Cochin Shipyard Limited
Sangeeth Balu Kolani, Cochin Shipyard Limited

Designing electric catamaran ferries for inland river navigation presents unique challenges. Route-specific constraints like draft restrictions and current patterns, combined with diverse operating profiles, necessitate a holistic design approach. Traditional iterative methodologies followed in ship design often struggle to achieve optimal trade-offs between battery size, hull performance, and operational requirements, leading to extended design time and suboptimal solutions.

This paper presents an efficient design methodology using CAESES, which is a flexible CAD tool for parameterization. The approach starts by gathering key inputs: passenger capacity, intended operating route, and desired operational profile. Principle dimensions are defined considering route-specific restrictions, and CAESES will be used to generate various hull forms adhering to these constraints. Simultaneously, key naval architectural calculations (stability, lightweight, powering) and battery sizing are performed seamlessly within CAESES using either custom feature definitions or by coupling to external tools.

This integrated approach within CAESES allows for balancing crucial design factors like fuel efficiency, battery capacity, and operational range while adhering to route-specific limitations. The significant time savings achieved compared to traditional iterative methods translate to faster design cycles and reduced costs, making this approach particularly valuable for shipyards/designers.

Implementation of Augmented Reality & virtual Reality in Marine Platform

Harish kumar Ketavarapu, L&T Defence

Construction of underwater platforms is considered as one of the most highly complex & challenging projects in the world. It requires a high level of space management during the construction. Around 35 million parts are to be accommodated meeting all technical, ergonomic & aesthetic requirements. Most of the material and equipment are supplied by customer to L&T as Free Issue Material (FIM). 500+ OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) are involved in supplying of material and components. These platforms are built for a long time through several phases from design -> construction->Trails-> commission-> maintenance which is lifecycle of 12 years. At Design stage 3D models are prepared by L&T based on customer inputs (such as drawings, Binding data of equipment, Normative) and reviewed by customer. However, during construction, a number of challenges are faced due to layout, ergonomics, aesthetic and OMA (Operability, Maintainability and Accessibility) aspects. To make the design process more robust, a need was felt to implement Virtual Reality (VR), providing immersive view and collaborations in 3D environment. Implementation of “Virtual Reality” in the following areas resulted in more robust design processes. 1. Layout Study, Acclimatization & Optimization, 2. Operation and Accessibility checks 3. Training and Maintenance space analysis. Due to Outfitting stage Due to concurrent design changes,

mismatch between supplied equipment against the issued Binding Data (35% variation), trial set up of equipment.  and pipe templating is mandatory. In order to identify such challenges proactively and avoid physical activities, Augmented Reality (AR) which superimposes digital image in physical world has been adopted. Implementation of “Augmented Reality” in the following areas during execution / outfitting stage resulted in identification & mitigation of challenges proactively:

  1. Digital Setup of Equipment/Piping - Proactive identification of installation, interference & interface


  1. Feasibility study and Layout review - Evaluation of impact of modified equipment in available space
  2. Digital Shipping in of Equipment - Identification of interference with other inventory in shipping-in route

Development of Simulation-based Optimization System for Quay Arrangement Planning

Hojung Kim, Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd.

The transition to energy has increased the demand for high value-added vessels such as LNG carriers, FLNG vessels, and hybrid LNG-powered ships. These vessels have a significantly higher proportion of outfitting work compared to other types, mainly due to specialized operations in handling LNG. A fixed quay wall is required to execute specific outfitting tasks. It leads to extended lead times for ship production in shipyards. The shipyard's quay walls are all different in length, depth, and facilities to improve work efficiency. Ships must move across multiple quay walls in order to increase the efficiency of outfitting work. However, the movement between the ship's quay walls should be minimized because it causes higher costs and time loss. This paper proposes a methodology to minimize the number of movements between quay walls and maximize operational efficiency. The approach includes data standardization, automated plan generation, optimization of arrangements, and systematic organization through a system. Furthermore, a 3D model-based visualization system is essential for easy verification of simulation results. The discrete event simulation was applied since the problem of the ship arrangement occurs sequentially and can be configured in units of tasks. Through this, it was possible to derive an optimal simulation result with high efficiency of the outfitting work. The visualization system displays daily results, indicating which ship is docked at which quay wall. The developed system is expected to be a powerful tool for improving shipyard productivity and making quick decisions by establishing optimal plans for the arrangement of the quay walls, identifying and addressing potential risks in advance.

A Search Method for Ship Regulations Considering Document Features

In-Su Han, Seoul National University

Classification societies around the world have a wide range of regulations for the safe operation of ships, and in recent years, these have become increasingly detailed. Because the regulations are vast and complex, it is difficult to obtain the desired results through keyword-based searches alone. As a result, it takes a lot of time to analyze all the regulations. In addition, users unfamiliar with regulatory terminology may need to learn the exact keywords to use to get the information. Therefore, this study proposed a search method to enable effective searching of the regulations. The proposed method preprocesses the regulations, converts them to a searchable form, computes their semantic similarity to the user search query, and serves the regulations with the highest similarity as answers. By extracting basic elements such as strings from the regulations in the PDF file, we built a dataset that can represent features such as hierarchical relationships within documents. We selected the final model for the efficient search by comparing and analyzing natural language processing (NLP) models for the semantic similarity-based search of the dataset and query for search. The proposed method was applied to the regulations of the Korean Register (KR-Rules), and the results show that it can provide users with rules that show high semantic similarity to the query in a short time.

The potential for Artificial Intelligence (AI) in a ship’s full product lifecycle

Jacqueline Christmas, University of Exeter

When thinking of Artificial Intelligence (AI) it is tempting to think only in terms of autonomy, i.e. systems that automate the navigation and control of the vessel.  In fact, there are many steps in a ship’s full product lifecycle where AI can contribute, from design and build, through sea trials, operations, maintenance and refit, to disposal.  In this paper we describe how different types of AI might fit into this lifecycle; from machine learning in the concept stage to explore the solution space, to web scraping automation to track the regulations and guidance in disposal.  AI tools can be used in partnership with engineers to provide a co-pilot offering greater than the sum of the parts. We explore the opportunities, challenges and ethical considerations in each case, and how we can mitigate against the risks.  In particular, we discuss the concepts of bias, explainability and uncertainty, and consider general principles for the ethical use of AI in ships.

The potential role of Digital Twins for ships’ Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems

Jacqueline Christmas, University of Exeter

The traditional perception of a digital twin in shipbuilding is as an initial CAD design to support the physical build process.  More recently it has become a system in which data from the operational ship is maintained in approximately real time.  Placing this real-time digital “shadow” within a realistic environmental simulation enables its use for planning and scenario testing, and for predictive maintenance scheduling.  As Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems begin to be incorporated into ships, digital twins provide a new opportunity.  Many AI systems need to undergo a period of training, where they are provided with input data along with their expected outputs.  Once trained, if they are presented with a new set of inputs they then predict what the outputs should be.  A high-quality digital twin embedded in a realistic environmental simulation presents the possibility of generating large volumes of training data for the AI systems, without the need for expensive sea trials.  We present an example of of how this might work and discuss the benefits and challenges of such a system.

Practical Integration of A* Algorithm and DQN for Maritime Route Planning

Tae-Wan Kim, Seoul National University

This paper proposes a practical approach to maritime route planning by integrating A* algorithm-based reference route generation with reinforcement learning. The method begins by creating uniform grids that include land information to prevent grounding during route generation. Secondly, using the land information grid, we compute a reference route based-on A* algorithm, which reduces learning time and provides a navigational guide. Subsequently, the reference route is extended into a ribbon-shaped region, serving as a guideline that offers positive rewards when the agent is within this region. Thirdly, we develop a reward function that combines the positive ribbon region and a distance-based potential field. The distance-based potential field comprises two elements: the Euclidean distance from the location of the agent to the destination, and the Euclidean distance from the location of the agent to the reference route when the agent is not in the ribbon region. Finally, with this reward function, we compute an optimal route based on Deep Q-Network(DQN) algorithm and a ship model that allows the agent to simulate the ship’s three degree of freedom motions: surge, sway, and yaw.

A Node Network Approach to Naval Architecture

Jan Furustam, NAPA Ltd

Ship design is becoming increasingly complex for naval architects due to new calculation methods, available innovations (needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions) and to comply with increasing regulatory requirements on safety aspects and environmental considerations. Improving the ship design performance on specific design aspects is a complex task where it is nearly impossible to foresee the consequences of design choices in a multi-disciplinary design-landscape. Balancing trade-offs on design aspects in a timely manner often proofs difficult: while a singular answer to the design problem is found, improved alternative design options are not investigated or left unanswered.

Using the proposed node-network approach, the ship design problem is organised in a node-network around a 3D product model of the vessel, where each node is designed to solve a given problem. The nodes can be organised into levels of node-groups, making complex and multi-disciplinary calculations possible, while maintaining an easy overview for the naval architect. By utilizing nodes, node-groups and node-networks libraries, the naval architect is empowered to flexibly adapt large multi-disciplinary calculations in the node-network to suit specific project or company needs.

The node-network approach to naval architecture, together with NAPA's proven principles, promise a more flexible, user friendly and efficient solution for designing vessels. While unlocking new technologies, such as algorithmic optimization to the naval architect. This methodology holds the key to advancing the marine industry towards more sustainable and high performance vessel designs. With the node-network approach, NAPA will continue to be the industry leader in software to the marine industry.

Development of finite element modeling method for effective structure design

Jeonghoon LEE, Korean Register

Structure design is very important for the safety of ships. To make sure a ship’s structural safety, all shipbuilders model ship’s cargo holds as finite elements and analysis according to classification’s rules. In this process, local fine mesh work is repeatedly performed on important areas such as area where a lot of loads is applied. As rules become more stringent and the size of ships increases, the number of detailed mesh areas increases, becoming a major cause of designers' time-consuming efforts.

This paper suggests new ways to make this process easier and faster. It introduces a method called 'Mesh Copy' that lets designers easily copy detailed parts of the model and use them in other areas. This is useful for modeling ships that need to repeatedly perform fine mesh work on similar areas. It also introduces another method called 'Mesh Restore.' This method is especially useful for tasks that require analysis while repeatedly changing parameters in the same area.

Three-dimensional recognition and estimation of shipyard workers’ postures using LiDAR sensors

Jong-Ho Nam, Korea Maritime & Ocean University

Co-Authors: Jung-Geun Park, Jihoon Heo, Yeomin Yoon, Joohyun Woo, Korea Maritime & Ocean University

The significance of worker posture is recognized as crucial for ensuring workplace safety and boosting productivity. This is particularly evident in the shipbuilding industry, where the complexity and diversity of blocks impede the implementation of automated processes, necessitating reliance on manual labor. The posture adopted by workers during manual tasks has a profound impact on both their safety and the overall productivity. Consequently, there is a growing emphasis on the need for precise monitoring of worker posture. Recent research efforts are focused on real-time detection of worker movements. Attempts using contact devices are inconvenient for workers and thus limited in use. Non-contact devices are attracting increasing interest. However, in environments with numerous obstructions, the challenge of accurately measuring worker posture remains significant. Such a challenge involves capturing and analyzing work images to determine the real-time skeletal structure of workers. This study introduces an efficient method employing LiDAR sensors mounted on smart devices for the real-time measurement of workers' postures. This approach offers a practical solution for approximating the postures of workers, even in cases where they are not fully visible. The method involves extracting skeletal data from 2D images and then enhancing this data with depth maps to construct comprehensive 3D joint models. The accuracy and reliability of this method are validated using a range of tools, including the analysis of worker silhouettes and biomechanical parameters. The posture data obtained is invaluable for future research endeavors aimed at improving both the safety and productivity of industrial workspaces.

Automatic generation of damage scenarios for arbitrary shaped compartments within damage zones

Jong-Ho Nam, Korea Maritime & Ocean University

Co-Authors: Hyewon Lee, Jongmin Ahn, Minjoo Choi, Korea Maritime & Ocean University

The verification of the stability of dry cargo and passenger ships has significantly improved since the shift from a deterministic to a probabilistic approach in calculating damaged stability. This probabilistic method, which accounts for all conceivable damage scenarios, demands extensive computational resources, particularly in the creation of damage scenarios. Notably, the complexity and likelihood of errors in these scenarios escalate with the number and variability in shape of the ship's compartments. According to SOLAS regulations, damage combinations are typically based on compartments separated by horizontal and vertical watertight bulkheads. Challenges arise, however, when compartments are not aligned horizontally or vertically, leading to ambiguities and potential errors in the combinations. This study presents an algorithm that automatically generates damage combinations for compartments with arbitrary shapes. It begins by determining the topological relationships between adjacent compartments using their geometric data. While considering the traditional six directions of connectivity (front, back, left, right, up, and down), the algorithm also addresses more complex scenarios where a compartment's face has multiple directionalities. The method systematically traverses these connections to map out all damage scenarios, extending from the ship's draft through the interior of the hull and below the draft, thereby identifying all compartments at risk of flooding. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated in its ability to identify all potential damage scenarios in ships with variably shaped compartments.

Model-Based FEM Reporting for Streamlining Approval Workflows

Jussi Puurula, Rapid Structural Design Oy

The Open Class 3D Exchange (OCX) standard has catalyzed a revolutionary shift in the maritime industry, transforming from traditional 2D drawing-based approval processes to 3D model-based approach. By facilitating the exchange of structural information, OCX has laid the groundwork for a more comprehensive digital information exchange between classification societies and shipbuilders. Our article explores the significant impact of integrating Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis results into model-based design approval framework.

Traditionally, FEM results have been communicated through PDF plots, providing classification approvers with only limited understanding of stress levels, while designers retained exclusive access to detailed simulation results of the hull structural behavior. Deeper, data-driven insight into hull structural behavior would enable approvers to conduct their assessments more independently and efficiently, reducing the need for extensive back-and-forth communication and reducing time needed for design and approval. Furthermore, this integration paves the way for automated rule compliance verification and the application of advanced technologies.

Our article invites industry-wide dialogue on advancing FEM-reporting to meet future needs. We seek to catalyze innovation and foster collaboration, setting the stage for digital transformation in shipbuilding and classification. Our vision is for the shipbuilding industry to emerge as a digital frontrunner in model-based design approval, establishing standards that could inspire other industries as well.

System Architecting Methods for Floating Offshore Wind Power System

Kazuhiro Aoyama, The University of Tokyo

In recent years, the complexity of product and system design has surged due to increasing functionality and performance demands, presenting significant challenges during the conceptual design phase. This study introduces a methodology aimed at enhancing the efficiency and comprehensiveness of conceptual system design, particularly for novel systems lacking predefined components and constraints. Utilizing Object-Process Methodology (OPM), the approach enables a top-down identification of necessary components through functional definition, aligning with the system's main objectives and functions.

This methodology acknowledges the potential for multiple objects to fulfill a single process, thus considering all possible combinations and applying constraints to refine design proposals. Key to this process is the comparison of multiple designs to understand their characteristics, which is initially challenged by the absence of dynamic system behavior insights. To address this, simulations via 1D-CAE are employed, acting as a complementary tool to OPM by integrating previously overlooked functions and design variables. This synthesis facilitates the creation of a simulation model and a characteristics network that maps relationships between design variables, enabling a holistic examination of system characteristics.

By assessing design variables and system characteristics, the methodology effectively identifies contradictions and causal loops, guiding the narrowing down of design proposals. This process also allows for the exploration of higher-level systems and additional constraints to generate new, meaningful design proposals. The methodology's efficacy was validated through its application to the design of a floating offshore wind power system, demonstrating its capability to organize necessary functions, differentiate between multiple design proposals, and strategically refine choices based on constraints. This study concludes with the successful development of a holistic design methodology that meets the objectives of constructing appropriate models for new systems and facilitating the derivation of design proposals.

Design Methods for Module Platforms Based on Dependency Analysis of Design Specifications

Kazuhiro Aoyama, The University of Tokyo

This study introduces a novel design methodology aimed at mitigating the challenges posed by an aging workforce and talent shortage in the manufacturing sector, with a specific focus on the shipbuilding industry. The method leverages modularization, grounded in a detailed relevance analysis of design specifications, to streamline the design process and facilitate the transfer of knowledge from experienced designers to newcomers. By analyzing actual specification data from shipbuilding firms, the approach elucidates the intricate relationships between components, proposing modules that demonstrate strong interconnections for more efficient design support.

The methodology builds upon existing research methodologies such as the utilization of Cramer's V coefficient for assessing the independence of categorical data, advanced quantification techniques for measuring similarity between text-based items, and the employment of Design Structure Matrix (DSM) to visually represent component relationships. Incorporating machine learning models, particularly LightGBM, enhances the prediction of component relevance, with a focus on features like Cramer's V coefficient, cosine similarity for text analysis, and network centrality metrics to construct a binary classifier.

The machine learning model developed through this study exhibits high predictive accuracy, with cosine similarity emerging as a key factor. The conversion of predictive outcomes into DSM facilitates the identification of closely related component clusters. Furthermore, the introduction of a Modular Design Matrix (MDM) that encapsulates hierarchical relationships among components significantly aids designers in understanding component interrelations and hierarchy during the design phase. The methodology also delineates module relationships using DSM, thereby offering a structured approach to design that promises enhanced efficiency.

Through the integration of machine learning predictions, DSM clustering, and the strategic creation of MDM, the proposed method not only aids in pinpointing specification change scopes and design adjustments but also significantly contributes to the design process's overall efficiency within the shipbuilding industry. This aids in the effective dissemination of critical knowledge to the next generation of engineers. The findings from this research indicate that our machine learning model can accurately forecast specification changes, while the use of DSM clustering and MDM provides a comprehensive understanding of system design, promoting a more streamlined and efficient design approach.

Evaluation of Feebate for Net-Zero GHG Emissions in the International Maritime Transport by Multi-Agent Simulation

Kazuho Nonomura, The University of Tokyo

In The International Maritime Organization, the introduction of Feebate is discussed for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport, which aims to encourage shipping companies to use alternative fuels by charging fossil fuels and refunding alternative fuels. Under this institution, the decisions of one shipping company affect those of others, which makes it difficult to predict the future CO2 emissions by calculations and simulations based on analytical methods. In this study, we aim to search for effective ways of introducing Feebate to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. A multi-agent simulator is developed by modeling Feebate with agents that imitate the decision making of shipping companies, in order to simulate the future CO2 emissions when the Feebate is introduced. The agents make decisions of setting the vessel speed and ordering new vessels every year from 2023 to 2050. Furthermore, we propose a method to quantitatively evaluate the simulation results, focusing on the CO2 emission reduction effect, economic effect, and the balance of fee and rebate. Sixty one types of Feebate with different fee intensities and starting years are simulated. The simulation results show that the introduction of Feebate encourages shipping companies to introduce alternative fuel vessels, leading to the reduction in CO2 emissions effectively, while at the same time doing shipping companies economic damage. Furthermore, the results show that the slow start of Feebate delays the spread of alternative fuel vessels and makes it difficult to curb CO2 emissions, even with the intense fees.

Research on BOM data model for PLM system in shipbuilding

Kohei Matsuo, National Maritime Research Institute

This paper describes a BOM data model suitable for product development for an introduction of PLM systems in shipbuilding. First, the paper organizes shipbuilding product development process, and define a BOM (E-BOM, M-BOM, BOP) data model suitable for that product development process. After that, actual ship BOM data is generated based on the proposed data model and implemented in the PLM system. Through a demonstration of a design and manufacturing process based on a PLM system, the paper discuss how BOM data models is used for data integration in shipbuilding.

Partial-Knowledge Predictive Maintenance for Hull and Propeller Health Assessment Based on Real Operational Data

Luca Oneto, University of Genoa

With the sophistication of shipboard systems, maintenance is becoming more time-consuming and skill-dependent. Precise and timely planning, which can be achieved through predictive maintenance, is key to overcoming these challenges and ensuring the longevity and efficiency of assets. The rapid growth of ship monitoring systems means that failures and performance hits can be linked to observed variations in measurable parameters. This knowledge can be used to identify and prevent imminent failures, as well as limit performance losses, through the identification of undesirable trends. The current work aims to predict the hull and propeller health status that can degrade over time. Leveraging data collection capabilities of modern vessels, with artificial intelligence, and first-principle techniques we propose a methodology for the assessment of the reductions of the vessel's performance compared to a reference 'clean vessel state' to trace the extent of fouling of the hull and propeller. The main aim is to develop a set of real-time fault detection and short-term forecasting tools, which can be used to supplement a maintenance strategy, reducing maintenance loads and crew requirements. The proposed methodology has been tested on Holland Class Offshore Patrol Vessels.

in-Service Ship Stability Diagnostics. Modernising Traditions.

Manuela Bucci, Tymor Marine Ltd

The commercial value of a ship is bound to her stability performances and lightship. For the hull form nothing can be done after building, but the lightship is a live quantity.
It is measured at begin of life with an inclining experiment. Then, changes are addressed by five-yearly audits. The gap intervals are filled with estimates based on weight control, which can be shown to be a ‘random walk’ process susceptible to undetected decay in the ship’s stability, even if well controlled.
The weight control process involves comparison between calculated and measured ship weight but information about the centre of gravity may only be estimated.
In-service stability measurements may be integrated within the ship operations to directly evaluate the vessel VCG. Information from the onboard loading program and statistical process control techniques allow diagnosis of changes in the lightship vertical moment with continuity throughout the ship life.
Signal data processing techniques make possible the measurement at sea.
The result is a model of ship stability over time, with uncertainty on the mean value decreasing with increasing number of measurements making in-service stability measurements a better diagnostic of evolution in stability performance than records of weight changes.
Once changes are diagnosed, weight control remains important to characterize them.
This paper critically reviews the conventional techniques and sets out the methods of in-service stability assessment, techniques for analysis and the control limits that can be used to trigger further investigation.  The technology is suitable for any vessel at sea including autonomous vessels.

Design Agnostic Fabrication, does it have impact on deliverables?

Marcel Veldhuizen Distler, Hexagon PPM/Nestix Oy

We often see that the digital chain is broken at the shop floor, despite that often companies have invested large amounts of money in acquisitions of automated equipment, such as robotics as well as intelligent logistic handling equipment. What I mean with broken is that the information provided to the shop floor is often still in the traditional deliverables like spreadsheets and drawings.  With today technology we have seen major improvements in those cases where the companies not only have invested in intelligent equipment but also maintaining the digital link with the design tools and the production tools.  We have seen two very important aspects of this:

-              Reliability of Data to be entered into the fabrication process

-              Confidence of Information provided and the impact on the requested deliverables

Both of these items have impacts at the shop floor, being the need for less time spend on checking, improved quality or less demand for certain deliverables. This paper will explain how reliability and confidence of information provided have impacts on the shop floor using customer examples as well as insights from a vendor perspective.

Unifying Project Knowledge: Navigating the Data-Driven and Cloud-Powered Frontier in Engineering and Production Tools

Marcus Bole, Cadmatic

As Data-Driven Engineering and Production becomes increasingly embraced, the role of Information Management in ship building is critical to the success of projects.  While Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) has been the accepted solution, its deep focus on managing engineering data configuration and change process makes it less agile in delivering capabilities organisations desire most, the ability to share project information and progress between all team members in the project.

The ever-increasing complexity of software tools used in design and production often from specialist vendors each with unique data models and the emergence of cloud-based solutions means that preparing a unified view of a project from a central repository of principle data is no longer feasible.  It has become highly desirable to refer to data beyond the robust IT infrastructure of the design office to remote production facilities, and sub-contractors outside of the organisation to maintain a unified view of the project.

This paper discusses how these challenges are solved in Cadmatic eShare, by focusing on data integration rather than ownership and presenting a view of the project where any team member can access published information from any system using only typical web-browser skills. Allowing team members to register changes of project maturity and inconsistencies, improves confidence in decision making and timely rectification of unexpected issues.  Supported by implemented examples from ship design and production, this paper will highlight that facilitating effective communication and collaboration between team members around project information is a highly effective way to reduce project costs and eliminate inconsistencies before they become expensive production mistakes.

"Modeling and Simulation of Wind Assisted Propulsion Systems with the 3DEXPERIENCE platform"

Margarita Riera and Wouter Van der Velden, Dassault Systemes

The urgency to find alternative propulsion methods requires innovative approaches. Wind Assisted  Propulsion, rooted in ancient maritime practices, emerges as a key enabler in the decarbonization journey, with various types such as rotor sails, kites, suction wings, and rigid sails.

Our focus lies in the integration of Wind Assisted Propulsion Systems, as the most sustainable solution to reduce fuel consumption through retrofitting sails on existing ships.

Since IMO accepted recently CFD as a reliable method for calculation, Dassault Systèmes has become a pivotal force, implementing digital technologies in shipbuilding and marine environments. The optimization of the sail geometry through parametric design and simulation, as well as the proper placement on the deck for its installation, is demonstrated in this paper.

The workflow highlights a sequential fluid-structure interaction (FSI) optimization simulation of the isolated geometry through a parametric CAD design. The democratization of this process is extended on the 3DEXPERIENCE platform, enabling the shift towards high-fidelity simulation methodology to an earlier stage.  In this process, the designer computes the steady aerodynamic performance and static structural integrity, concurrently optimizing parameters including the airfoil shape and characteristics of the wing box such as the number and thicknesses of ribs.

Finally, the sail is placed on a bulk carrier to evaluate real-life operational conditions using an unsteady flow simulation based on the Lattice-Boltzmann method. This proven technology, adopted from other industries, helps engineers optimize the sail's performance by systematically adjusting its location, size, and quantity to maximize fuel efficiency.

Examination of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flow Dynamics on Entry to and Breach from a Static Water Column

Matthew Ericksen, Australian Defence Force

Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (HUAVs), autonomous vehicles designed to operate in both air and water, are an area of technology where few studies exist. Fewer have examined the transition effects of HUAVs free diving into a body of water or breaching at sufficient speed to re-achieve flight. This paper reports on the initial numerical findings of a swing-wing vehicle diving into static seawater at low speed and its subsequent breach back into flight. Analysis of the associated forces and flow field required Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations of a full-scale HUAV model with wings hinged rearward. The model enters the water at speeds greater than 10m/s and exits at 5m/s, normal to the surface. Various buoyancy cases were examined under uniform experimental conditions to observe their effects on model dynamics. The results revealed that impact forces experienced on entry remained constant across all cases. However, they varied in magnitude with entry speed and were more acute according to vehicle mass. In the case of the vehicle’s breach, a sufficient portion of the fuselage was able to clear the surface for deployable propulsion units to operate unhindered by typical wave heights. The CFD work was validated by wind tunnel modelling for free flight, but further validation is needed for the underwater and transition cases. As this technology is emerging, examining the dynamics of a hybrid aerial vehicle during its dive into and breach from water will provide insight into the structural, propulsive, buoyancy and control requirements for future designs and study.

Efficient use of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) to ensure sustainable life cycle processes in shipbuilding


Discrete Event Simulation (DES) has been used successfully for many years in operational, tactical and strategic planning processes in shipbuilding. Materials flow in assembly and manufacturing, as well as logistics, are taken into account. To ensure effective model creation and execution of simulation studies for industry-specific questions, it has proven beneficial to use tailored simulation module libraries. The prefabricated simulation modules can be combined and configured for the specific case with little effort.

The proposed article will focus on current developments and applications of such a library, namely the Simulation Toolkit for Shipbuilding (STS), developed based on the software Plant Simulation by Siemens. The most important extensions of the toolkit in the recent past (e.g. scheduler, energy meter, compartment including traffic management, statistical tool and downtime management) and the development of a demo model of a shipyard will be presented. Some practical applications of these developments are explained in detail using examples from current simulation studies.

The outlook deals with future developments in the field. New modules in the STS library are to be created to expand its scope of application. Since sustainability aspects and circular economy are more and more taking center stage in the maritime sector, DES tools’ capabilities to cover life cycle shipyard processes such as dismantling and recycling need to be developed, as well as the analysis of the ecological footprint of processes throughout the lifecycle of a ship. In the periphery of the STS, the focus will be on effective data management during the preparation, execution, and post-processing of simulation experiments.

A Novel Maritime Fuel Consumption Model Assessment: A Holistic Data-Driven Approach

Nicolò Faggioni, Fincantieri NexTech

This paper introduces an innovative holistic approach cantered on data-driven techniques, specifically leveraging unsupervised learning algorithms such as clustering and Gaussian mixture models (GMM). The primary focus is on optimizing fuel consumption estimates for maritime vessels, taking into account various factors including fouling, weather conditions, and vessel configuration.

In response to the increasing complexity of the maritime industry, achieving precise fuel consumption estimates has become imperative for operational efficiency. Navigating through diverse conditions, such as fouling, weather impacts, and vessel configuration, poses a significant challenge for accurate power curve assessments. To overcome this challenge, a model that integrates unsupervised learning algorithms—particularly clustering and Gaussian mixture models—has been developed, alongside traditional mathematical models to assess hull resistance contributions.

The complexity of maritime systems and the impact of factors like fouling necessitate a dynamic and adaptive approach. The model considers these factors in real-time, facilitating a comprehensive evaluation of the power curve under diverse operational scenarios and as a post-process to determine the most suitable data-driven model for emulating ship behaviour.

The holistic framework encompasses data acquisition, preprocessing, and the development of a Power Index (PI) for assessing fuel consumption. It's worth noting that our company has extensive experience in this field, having applied similar methodologies in several industrial and research projects. This depth of expertise enhances the robustness and reliability of the proposed approach.

To validate the effectiveness of the developed model, actual operational data is used, allowing for a direct comparison between normal operating conditions and scenarios with fouling or adverse weather conditions. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the holistic approach in providing more accurate fuel consumption estimates, thereby contributing to sustainable and efficient maritime operations.

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­The hybrid method to solve the gap among the CFD, model tests and full scale performance of gate rudder

Noriyuki Sasaki, Strathclyde Universiy

The GATERS project, which was implemented over three years, brought about many new discoveries.

The greatest achievement was to clarify the scale effects that exist between numerical calculations, tank tests, and actual ship performance.

In particular, the scale effect of the thrust reduction  factor was found to be essential when considering the actual ship performance of the gate rudder. In this paper, the results of an investigation mainly using CFD on the scale effect of the thrust reduction factor will be introduced.

Revolutionizing Shipbuilding: AI-Driven Design and Manufacturing in Shipbuilding Operations

Oliver-Andreas Leszczynski, MEYER Group (MEYER WERFT)

MEYER Werft stands at the forefront of digital transformation in shipbuilding, embracing the principles of Industry 4.0. This journey is marked by an innovative integration of cutting-edge technologies, reshaping traditional shipbuilding methods into a digitally advanced, efficient, and sustainable process.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a cornerstone of MEYER Werft's digitalization strategy, aligning with our own AI implementation model. AI technology drives advancements in design, manufacturing, and operational efficiency, reinforcing our commitment to technological excellence and industry leadership.

Our focus extends to exploring AI applications in complex shipbuilding processes. Two significant use cases under investigation are the optimization of steel wall penetration and the enhancement of weld seam inspection, both pivotal in improving quality and efficiency.

In the HRQ process, AI algorithms analyze structural designs to optimize hole drilling in steel walls. This involves precision placement and sizing, leveraging AI for reduced material wastage, enhanced accuracy, and improved structural integrity.

AI integration transforms weld seam inspection by employing advanced radiologic evaluation. This AI-driven approach detects and assesses defects with higher accuracy and consistency, significantly enhancing quality control measures in ship construction.

MEYER Werft's journey in integrating AI into shipbuilding is a testament to our innovative spirit and dedication to Industry 4.0 principles. These AI applications not only signify operational improvements but also pave the way for groundbreaking advancements in ship design and construction. Our collaboration with PROSTEP AG further strengthens this endeavor, setting new benchmarks for the shipbuilding industry.

Ultimate Capacity Analysis of Single Hull VLCC Structural Elements Subject to Corrosion

Rachid Dami

During the last few decades, the emphasis in structural design has been moving from the allowable stress design to the limit state design, because the latter approach has many more advantages. A limit state is formally defined as a condition for which a particular structural member or an entire structure fails to perform the function that it has been designed for.

In order to ensure a safe design of a ship’s hull, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the capacity of the hull girder considering extreme loads.

The objective of this work is to perform the strength analysis for tank structures, according to the Det Norske Veritas (DNV) Rules and Regulations; following the Common Structural Rules (CSR) taking into account the influence of the uniform and atmospheric corrosion.

Based on the model that describes the phenomenon of the corrosion, a model (2) has been introduced. This model is based on the approach which was taken from (Shengping Qin and Weicheng, 2002); it was used to develop a methodology to predict reduction of thickness of structural elements due to corrosion. The results obtained using the prediction methods were verified against the experimental results.

The effect of the corrosion on the section modulus and the variation of the section area of the cargo deck were investigated, as a function of time and the exponential depth of the corrosion. It was to get the relationship between weight and the ratio of the section modulus during 25 years service of the tanker.

The results of the calculations as a comparison between different models which determine the ultimate stress for the plate and rigid panels, including the results received using the PULS software (the theory of nonlinear plate) are presented in this work. Based on the study of the parameters influencing the reduction in ultimate capacity of the plate, the effect of the corrosion on the reduction of the ultimate capacity was investigated for various regions of the tanker (bottom, deck, side, and longitudinal bulkhead).

The analysis of the progressive collapse of the hull girder, based on the computation for the two candidate models, the Rahman code and the results of the Nauticus Hull (using the procedure of CSR) was carried out to evaluate the ultimate bending moment after 25 years of service.

Exploration and assessment suite of propulsion systems based on Simcenter Studio

Rafael Martín, Navantia

The propulsion system of a ship is subject to several requirements. Reaching an optimal design usually demands the study of a multitude of alternatives to verify their compliance with the requirements. At early design stages this process is within an iterative spiral which converts it in a time-consuming task, and the workload, calculation tools, and schedule restrict engineers to focus on a limited number of configurations. This stablished process will surely give a suitable solution, but as important as the solution is the manner they are obtained.

Navantia, as a European leading naval shipbuilder, makes a great effort to provide its engineering disciplines with the best means to efficiently achieve optimized designs, relying on the latest technologies. Currently, Navantia is developing a tool meant to boost engineer performance through an accelerated design process which avoids design fixation and gives optimized and novel solutions. It leverages Simcenter Studio, Python and Simcenter Amesim to generate, explore and assess all feasible architectures given a set of constraints.

Hundreds of alternatives can be analysed with low time consumption due to parallel computation and automation. Advanced calculations and requirements verification in a highly automated workflow are the foundations of this design procedure, that empowers the engineer with more time and insights for a better design.

The article explains the technologies applied and the steps followed within this custom process, as well as a description of the tool capabilities with a practical use case.

Transformative Trends in Ship Design and Engineering Processes

Rodrigo Pérez Fernandez, Siemens Digital Industries Software

The integration of digital tools and the establishment of an Integrated Ship Design and Engineering digital thread mark a pivotal transformation in the shipbuilding industry. This paradigm shift employs digital technologies and data-driven processes to elevate ship design, engineering, and the overall shipbuilding process. Positioned within the broader context of digitalization, this trend is reshaping industries by harnessing digital tools and data analytics to enhance efficiency, collaboration, and decision-making.

This paper delves into the profound transformation occurring within the shipbuilding sector as it embraces digital tools. The exploration encompasses the strategic utilization of digital technologies by shipyards, the integration paths they have forged, and the dynamic challenges they encounter throughout this evolutionary process.

In the current ship design landscape, the reliance on the design spiral, while prevalent, exhibits limitations in agility, hindering efficient responses to changes. Recognizing the need for a competitive and future-ready industry by 2030, this paper advocates for a paradigm shift. Specifically, it investigates how embracing the V-model can fortify the shipbuilding industry against evolving challenges, fostering adaptability and resilience in the face of dynamic transformations.

Unveiling the Metamorphosis of Shipbuilding through CAD Tools and Digital Twins

Rodrigo Pérez Fernandez, Siemens Digital Industries Software

The advent of Industry 4.0 brings forth a magnitude of changes, emphasizing the central role played by the 3D model, primarily crafted using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. As the linchpin connecting the 3D model with the broader Industry 4.0 ecosystem, CAD tools take center stage, showcasing their increasing significance. The Digital Twin emerges as a crucial bridge, facilitating a seamless connection between the real and virtual realms throughout the construction process and expanding possibilities across the entire product lifecycle.

This paper underscores the imperative for CAD tools to evolve, seamlessly integrating with Industry 4.0 technologies. Moreover, their adaptation is essential to meet the diverse needs of a new generation of users, demanding alternative interfaces and workflows, necessitating a substantial effort.

The shipbuilding industry, standing at the threshold of vast opportunities, is just embarking on exploring the potential of Industry 4.0. Recognizing the evident benefits, this study emphasizes the importance of examining how these technologies can enhance processes, resources, workflows, and stakeholder cooperation to maintain competitiveness. While there is no universal solution, digitalization, mature enough for implementation, becomes an integral part of future strategies.

This paper concludes by presenting an optimistic vision for the future, with Siemens at the forefront of enhancing marine design and engineering capabilities. Offering a comprehensive solution spanning from conceptual design to operation and maintenance, special attention is given to Industry 4.0 principles, as the Digital Twin concept takes center stage in reshaping ship design and construction processes.

Automated Detail Planning and Control for First-of-Class Projects using Product-Based-Planning and Yard Specific Value Streams

Ronald De Vries, Floorganise

This paper describes the benefits of capturing yard specific value streams to apply automated detail planning and control efforts for first-of-class projects. Allowing the recognition of over 90% of the relations, dependencies and constraints for the operational process prior to the completion of the engineering model. Creating the ability to integrate the need by dates from production with the workload and priorities for the engineering team’s schedule to cut back on overall lead-time. Through rolling wave-planning methods and direct integrations with the engineering 3D detailed design model automated sequencing, budgeting (hours/duration), resource allocation and progress recognition takes place in a yard control framework. This allows for closed feedback loops on operational performance as well as the instant recognition of progress, consumed hours, load-views, deviations and risks by direct roll ups to the project control level.

The Added Value of AIS Data Analysis for Naval Architects

Roy de Winter, C-Job Naval Architects

In this paper, the added value of AIS data analysis is shown for naval architects in the ship design process. In the preliminary design stage of ship design, many choices have to be made regarding design speed, autonomy, and in which weather conditions the vessel should be able to operate. Based on the desired main dimensions, speed, and autonomy the energy storage requirement of the vessel can be estimated. However, estimating the design speed, and time in open water between harbour visits by experience, gut feeling, or by simply expressing a desire often results in unrealistic scenarios. Therefore it is proposed to analyse existing similar vessels and see how much time is spent at sea, how much time is spent in port, what their operational speed distribution is, what operations are executed, and which weather and wave conditions do the vessels encounter. This can help naval architects to do more reliable energy requirement estimations and design a ship for realistic scenarios. The insight into the operational profile can help the naval architect to also convince the ship owner to choose a sustainable fuel or batteries and show that there is enough time to recharge or refuel when moored.

Giving insight into the operational profile has been done by C-Job for different vessels, a ro-ro ferry, and a trailing suction hopper dredger vessel. The ro-ro ferry showed to be eligible to be battery-powered. The trailing suction hopper dredger could be optimized for reliable operational conditions.

Implementation of grillage structural analysis program specialized for ships

Seok-Ho Byun, Korean Register

In the design and manufacturing phases of ships, conducting both diverse and frequent structural analysis is essential. The commonly used 2D mesh-based finite element analysis(FEA) has limitations, involving significant costs and time in modeling and solving. Contrastingly, utilizing grillage structural analysis by idealizing ship structures into 1D elements offers the benefits of rapid modeling and solving.

For these benefits, the Korean Register has developed a grillage structural analysis program specialized for classification and shipyard field. This paper introduces the capabilities of the new program and use cases.

An integrated real-time ship operation optimisation system to reduce fuel consumption and emissions from shipping navigation and port calls

Sergio Ribeiro e Silva, Instituto Superior Tecnico

A techno-economic analysis of an integrated real-time Ship Operation Optimization System (SOOS) to reduce fuel consumption and emissions from shipping navigation and port calls has been conducted to improve energy efficiency and simultaneously turn a case-study vessel compliant with Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) proposed by IMO. This new robust integrated real-time digital solution involves a significant number of both technical and operational measures “in practice” aiming to optimise operational efficiency (during navigation and port calls). Namely, the tool will be capable of situational awareness and decision support to reduce fuel consumption and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from shipping and must be combined with intrinsic vessel systems to improve vessel hydrodynamic performance, resulting also in improved vessel safety and widening of the operational weather window.

Enhancing Early Design Exploration: Integrating Generative AI with Model-Based Systems Engineering

Stein Ove Erikstad, Norwegian University for Science and Technology

This manuscript outlines a structured approach that integrates Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) with Generative AI (genAI), specifically referencing technologies such as ChatGPT, to enhance the development of formal design models. These models are suitable for early design exploration, analysis, simulation, and optimization. Initial findings suggest the potential of genAI to increase efficiency and productivity in model development, implementation, and application in the early phase of the design process.

However, achieving this efficiency requires fulfilling specific prerequisites. The initial step must capture a clear and unambiguous problem statement, which identifies all core modeling elements, their properties, and their interrelations. To enhance the precision of the problem statement, the use of UML-encoded class, state, and sequence models is proposed.

It is noted that each process step must maintain transparency and cannot be handled as black-box operations. While genAI contributes to the efficiency of various process steps, it does not obviate the need for human involvement. Continuous guidance, interaction, and validation from experienced human designers remain essential components of the process.

This work will present design use cases from vessel, fleet, and logistics systems perspectives to support the presented findings and discussions regarding the integration of MBSE with genAI for formal model development.

Study of Pipe Installation Simulation Based on Path Planning Algorithm

Tomoyuki Taniguchi, National Maritime Research Institute

This paper provides an assembly simulation method that enables collision-free installation of piping in shipbuilding. Piping installation simulation is a useful tool in the entire design and construction process, including determining the feasibility of piping installation, efficient installation sequence, and procurement planning.

One of the dominant factors in developing piping installation simulations is the collision-free installation. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate collision-free installation paths using the Path Planning Algorithm and to use them as an evaluation criterion for deciding the installation sequence of piping. Simulation results based on specific actual models and a discussion of its validity are presented.

EcoRouter: route optimisation and weather routing integrating low-carbon technologies

Victoria Gribkovskaia, SINTEF Ocean

Today weather routing considers time of arrival, risk & safety of crew and cargo, and fuel consumption. While these factors will remain crucial in the future, other considerations related to emerging technologies will have a strong influence on routing decisions. The link between technology choice and ship operation therefore needs to become stronger. We present EcoRouter, a prototype decision-support tool for weather routing and voyage optimisation, based on integrated and multidisciplinary modelling of future zero-emission technologies, route optimization and detailed ship modelling. The existing commercial routing and weather routing software is not transparent and uses generalised parameters neglecting specific design and technology details for individual ships and new concepts. The main innovation with EcoRouter lies in detailed numerical simulation models integrating properties and dynamics of the hull, propulsor, and the power plant, and adoption of new green technologies such as wind-, and wave-assisted propulsion as the fundament for route optimization.

EcoRouter tool will allow for increasing complexity in vessel operational planning coming into play in the near future due to the introduction of new and more expensive zero-emission energy carriers, reducing profit margins and cost competitiveness; wind- and wave-assisted propulsion systems further increasing the sensitivity of vessel performance to weather condition; and the larger variations in ship performance within a given fleet resulting from inclusion of new designs and retrofitted vessels.

A Study on AI-based Bead Shape Analysis System Using Laser Scanning

Wooseong Kim, RIMS

Due to the lack of production and inspection personnel and the increase in additional costs such as installing scaffolding for weld inspection, the demand for an automated system for weld inspection is increasing. In order to improve this process more efficiently, a bead recognition system based on autonomous driving is required and a lot of studies on quality inspection methods based on visual recognition using artificial intelligence(AI) are being conducted.

To solve this problem, we introduce an automatic bead shape analysis system by using laser scanning and artificial intelligence(AI). This system extracts the bead shape data through laser scanning, then determines the bead height to be grinded and type of defects by the analysis algorithm.

In the algorithm, the bead height is extracted from scan data and the height of grinding is calculated based on the international standard formula for bead dimensions. Then the type of weld defects is classified by using AI-based convolutional neural network(CNN).

For defect type classification, the prediction accuracy was successfully derived to over 98% by data preprocessing and selecting the best CNN model through the comparison tests.

A Method of Visualizing Massive 3D CAD Models for VR Application

YOULIN YANG, Xrsolution

Virtual Reality (VR) serves as a widely employed visualization tool across various industries, including shipbuilding. Applications such as virtual training systems and design collaboration tools employ VR to provide users with a more immersive experience. However, ships and offshore platforms involve enormous and intricate 3D CAD models. Swift and seamless load these massive files in the application while maintaining a smooth user experience presents a significant challenge. It requires some processing and optimization in computer graphics. Basic methods such as LOD(Level of Detail) are necessary but insufficient. Shipbuilding 3D CAD models consist of tens of thousands of parts, rendering each part on the screen imposes a substantial burden on computer memory and the CPU. To address these challenges, we propose a method that utilizes GPU instancing to alleviate the CPU load. Additionally, we employ caching and voxel concepts to manage small-sized parts effectively, thereby reducing loading time and controlling memory usage.

Maintenance Work Packaging (MWP) Based AR Remote Maintenance Considering Maritime Network

Youngsu Kim, Inha University

With the increasing interest in autonomous ships alongside the Fourth Industrial Revolution, attention has been drawn not only to the fundamental performance aspects of ships such as motion, control, and safety but also to the maintenance of ships. In response to this interest, research on remote support systems is actively underway to enable even non-experts to perform maintenance on shipboard equipment professionally. However, existing systems and research have limitations in supporting quick decision-making for non-experts without basic knowledge of maintenance tasks, as they mainly rely on audio and video for remote support. Additionally, there is a high dependence on equipment experts in remote locations, making system usage difficult in cases of poor network conditions. Therefore, in this study, we developed an augmented reality-based remote maintenance system that visualizes useful maintenance information in front of the user, aiming to efficiently support non-experts in their tasks. Furthermore, to enable remote maintenance in the uncertain conditions of maritime networks, we defined maintenance grades based on communication situations. We also built a database called Maintenance Work Package (MWP), which stores necessary information for maintenance tasks (drawings, work history, manuals, 3D CAD models, etc.), allowing for the rapid acquisition of useful information during maintenance operations.

Proposal for a shipbuilding process data structure and simulation system for automatic updating of production plans

Yui Okubo, Yokohama National University

Process simulation using information about design plans and the shipyard is considered to achieve highly efficient production planning and rational management operations. However, design plans are created and modified during construction. Due to the independent management of multiple production departments in a shipyard, it is difficult to integrate their production plans whenever the design plan is modified. This paper proposes a standard data structure appropriate to the process simulation, considering the modification of the ship design plan and the complexity of the construction process. The proposed data structure represents product information in a network that defines the product status necessary for management, including purchased materials, parts, and intermediate products. The production process data can be generated automatically by inserting a task node corresponding to either “decompose, combine, or state-change” between product nodes. From this production process data, each production department manager defines their detailed production process data as a project model by defining their management scopes and adding information about facilities and workers. Using the modeling data as input, we can perform a process simulation to output production plans for each department. When the design plan is updated, all production plans are also automatically updated keeping the relationships between departments. The case study verified the application of the research methodology to a virtual factory for the block assembly process. As a result, it confirmed that the proposed data structure and method could update each department’s production plans in conjunction with design plan modifications.

Application of advanced marine simulation in the integrated design and operation of both ships and ports

Keith Hutchinson, Safinah Ltd and Mel Irving, South Shields Marine School, UK

It is imperative that ports and the ships that use them are compatible, and ideally optimised for efficiency, operability, flexibility and safety.  This may mean designing a ship to fit a particular berth, altering the berth to suit the ship or in some instances both.  This paper will discuss how, in addition to standard analyses based on evaluations of design solution clouds which have always been undertaken by designers that, advanced marine simulation has been effectively deployed and successfully applied during the design process for both ships and ports, both for newbuild and upgrade projects. It will also demonstrate that such ‘real time’ simulation greatly enhances the operational analysis and understanding of the performance of designs and, hence, enabling the robust development and identification of optimal ship and port solutions.

The application of advanced marine simulation in the integrated design and operation of both ships and ports will be discussed in this paper through the presentation and description of a number of ‘real life’ examples which illustrate the successful utilisation of real time simulation in aiding the design process for both assets, namely ships and the port infrastructure, in its totality across a wide range of scenarios over a number of years – merchant, offshore, and military.  All these simulations have been undertaken at the ‘state of the art’ Kongsberg K-Sim simulator suite at South Shields Marine School (SSMS), located on Tyneside on the Northeast coast of England.  The school is one of the world’s oldest purpose built maritime training centres, founded in 1861, and has constantly been at the forefront of the education of mariners from all around the world.  SSMS is one of the global leaders in the development and use of marine simulation techniques not only for the   raining of deck and engineering officers but, because of their capabilities in ship and geographical area  database design, modelling, and assessment, also for research, accident investigation and design evaluations by naval architects and civil engineers.  In recognition of its expertise, the SSMS was awarded the prestigious Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education in 2019.

The ‘state of the art’ suite of simulators at SSMS are all capable of being interconnected therefore facilitating fully realistic and expansive simulations to be undertaken considering all aspects of operational performance.  This ‘world-class’ simulation suite include: two DNV Class ‘A’ full mission 360 degrees Bridge simulators, four smaller 130 degree and fourteen desktop Bridge simulators; a two-storey full mission Engine Room simulator which is capable of being separated into two fully functioning full mission simulators hence facilitating the undertaking of very expansive simulations to be undertaken on a combination of slow speed, medium speed, dual fuel and diesel electric propulsion trains; a diesel electric workstation; and also a full VTS (Vessel Traffic Service) suite.  Therefore, initially, in order to ‘set the scene, the capabilities and over five decades of experience of the Marine Simulation Unit of SSMS will be described to give an appreciation of the comprehensive and accurate simulations that can and have been performed to prove and adapt concepts,

enhance operability, increase efficiency, ensure flexibility, and maximise safety.

Numerical and experimental driven methodologies for enhancing Noise and Vibration Comfort on board

Lisa Gragnani, RINA S.p.A.

Over the last few years, in ships that host passengers on board, the need to offer a high comfort experience has led to an in-depth investigation into vibroacoustic performance. The first step of this study starts in early design phases when the numerical simulation with Statistical Energy Analysis and Finite Element Method allows to predict the noise and vibration levels on board and design/optimize the damping and insulation plans. Even if the predictions are carried out with a theoretical approach, many parameters and coefficients are derived from statistical analyses of experimental measurements, increasing the accuracy and the reliability of results. Moreover, methods such as Auralization allow to move from visualizing the spectrum of the transmission loss of a bulkhead to listening through headphones to how a real source will sound if shielded by such a bulkhead. To further push the ship vibroacoustic performance, even when the specified noise and vibration limits are fulfilled, RINA has combined the additional RINA COMF notation with the RINA COMF Noise Plus notation, where the analysis of tonal noise and acoustic privacy in specific situations elevates the study of the acoustic comfort to a higher level. Furthermore, on-board investigations can be explored in depth by innovative tools and software, such as Sound Cams, which allow to "see" the sources of noise and the Motion Amplification which enhances the study of the vibrations of any object on board.

Example of simulation-driven ship design for hull optimization with integrated CAD, CFD and intact stability analysis

Philipp Mucha, Siemens Digital Industries

Simulation-driven ship design (SDSD) is ousting the anachronistic design spiral, enabling integrated utilization of multi-physics simulation tools and high levels of automation. As such, SDSD is predestined to come into operation for the design and analysis of alternative powering solutions and engineering problems associated with green corridors, the infrastructure enabling green energy carriers. A bottleneck in segmented and iterative workflows using the design spiral is roundtripping design variants between hydrodynamics and hydrostatics analysis, curtailing achievement of the full potential of optimization goals and innovation. We present a general framework of integrating industry-standard intact stability analysis as implemented in FORAN with Siemens NX for geometry modeling, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) available from Simcenter STAR-CCM+ and the optimization suite of Simcenter HEEDS. It is shown that significant reduction of total hull resistance and improvement of load capacity of a very large crude carrier can be achieved in presence of realistic constraints on hydrostatic parameters like displacement, center of buoyancy and metacentric height.


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ICCAS 2024 - International Conference on Computer Applications in Shipbuilding


10th September, 2024 - 12th September, 2024    
All Day


£400.00 - £700.00
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Genoa, Italy
PORTO ANTICO DI GENOVA S.P.A., Calata Molo Vecchio 15, Magazzini del Cotone, Modulo 5, 16128 Genova